Take time to explore the countless ancient treasures of the country if you are planning a journey to Egypt. Ancient Egypt’s civilization spanned over 3,000 years, during which time its leaders marked their kingdoms with a sequence of progressively impressive monumental construction projects. Ancient Egypt’s architects have been so sophisticated that many of these landmarks still survive today-some in extremely good condition. The long-gone pharaohs’ pyramids, shrines, and sphinxes have been acting as an irresistible attraction for tourists from all over the globe for thousands of years.
1- Giza’s Pyramids
Situated in the outskirts of Cairo, Giza has three distinct complexes of pyramids. These are Khufu’s Grand Pyramid, the Khafre Pyramid and the Menkaure Pyramid. The Great Pyramid is one of the 7 Ancient World Wonders and is currently the only one. Each complex has a tomb and the Sphinx, which in Arabic means “father of terror,” lies in front of them. Each complex houses a distinct Egyptian pharaoh. Unbelievably, a single block of stone carves this cat-like sculpture. During the fourth dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, Giza’s pyramids and the Sphinx were built about 4,500 years ago. It is believed that the Khufu Pyramid alone needed 20,000 workers and two million stone blocks.
2- Complex of Karnak Temple
The Karnak Temple Complex was known in ancient times as “the most selected of locations” and devoted to the worship of Amun-Ra, the King of All Gods. The complex was built over about 1,500 years from the time of Senusret I to the Ptolemaic period, part of the ancient city of Thebes. For ancient Thebans, it was the most significant place of worship, and today the complicated ruins spread over a vast region of well over 240 acres. It involves amazing temples, chapels, kiosks, pylons and obelisks that are all devoted to the gods of Theban. It is the second biggest ancient religious complex on the planet, while the Hypostyle Hall is deemed one of the world’s biggest architectural masterpieces in the Great Temple of Amun.
3- Luxor’s Temple
Luxor’s Temple is located on the Nile’s east bank in the middle of Luxor, a town known as Thebes in ancient times. Construction began in about 1392 BC by the New Kingdom pharaoh Amenophis III and finished by Ramesses II. The temple was used to celebrate festivals and rituals, including Opet’s annual Theban festival. In a celebration of marriage and fertility, statues of Amun-Ra, his wife Mut and their baby Khonsu were held in procession during this festival from Karnak to Luxor. Under the Greeks and Romans, the Temple of Luxor survived as a temple, was once a church, and today there is a Muslim mosque in one of its halls. Luxor Temple at night is beautifully lit so visiting the site at sunset is worthwhile.
4- The Kings ‘ Valley
The Abu Simbel temple complex is located in southern Egypt and is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the ancient world. During the reign of Ramesses II, the temples were originally carved into a solid rock cliff. It is believed they were built to celebrate the victory of the king over the Hittites in the Battle of Kadesh. The Great Temple is 98 feet/30 meters high and has four colossal Ramesses statues sitting on its throne wearing Lower and Upper Egypt’s crowns. The Small Temple is devoted to Nefertari, the wife of Ramesses. The archeological site was cut into large blocks after the Aswan Dam was built in the 1960s, which were then moved to higher ground one by one and reassembled to prevent flood damage.
5- Horus Temple in Edfu
Edfu’s Horus Temple is regarded to be the best preserved of all ancient landmarks in Egypt. During the Ptolemaic dynasty, it was constructed between 237 and 57 BC and honors the falcon-headed god Horus. Horus served many distinct roles and the god of battle and hunting was known as the god of heaven. The temple complex is enormous and has an impressive pylon and birth house, with outstanding reliefs and sculptures portraying Horus ‘ different narratives. Also maintained were inscriptions called building texts and narrate the building history of the Temple. Located approximately halfway between Aswan and Luxor, Edfu is a very popular stop on cruises on the Nile River.